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Smartnet acts as a repository of key reference material like reports, guidelines, model documents, case studies and research on topics relevant to the urban sector. The Smartnet Library has been catalogued based on sectors, sub-sectors and types of documents.
The Library can also be searched using the Advanced Search option for Document Titles, Authors / Organisations and Keywords.

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  • Booklet on Technology Options for FSSM
    Options for Septage Treatment. New Delhi, India: National Institute of Urban Affairs, 2017.

    This document has been prepared by the Centre for Water and Sanitation (C-WAS) at CEPT University for the Sanitation Capacity Building Platform particularly for supporting the trainings on Faecal Sludge Management. It acts as a compendium of various types of options for the treatment of Septage...

  • FSTP at Leh
    Faecal Sludge Treatment Plant (FSTP), Leh In Fact Sheet. BORDA South Asia, 2017.

    The FSTP at Leh is required to handle both the challenges of high altitude and extreme climatic conditions as well as highly variable sludge inflow. This plant is designed by BORDA and CDD. The capacity can be increased easily by building PDB modules. Greenhouses can be built on the PDBs to...

  • FSM_Leh
    FSM for Leh. NFSSM Alliance, 2017.

    The FSTP at Leh is required to handle both the challenges of high altitude and extreme climatic conditions as well as highly variable sludge inflow. This plant is designed by BORDA and CDD. The capacity can be increased easily by building PDB modules. Greenhouses can be built on the PDBs to...

  • Devenhalli
    Faecal Sludge Management Devanahalli, Bangalore., 2017.

    In coordination with Devanahalli’s Town Municipal Cooperation (TMC), CDD Society built a faecal sludge treatment plant (FSTP). The plant is successfully handling 100% of the sludge collected in Devanahalli today.

    The success of the FSTP motivated the TMC to pass resolutions in order to...

  • Enabling FSM
    A guide to strengthening the enabling environment for faecal sludge management. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, 2017.

    This Guide presents an introduction to conceptualising and strengthening the enabling environment for faecal sludge management (FSM) services in low-income urban areas.

    It is based on WSUP’s experience working with Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to develop market-based solutions for...

  • Case Study Ghana Sanitation
    Scott, Pippa, Joana Forte, and Adrien Mazeau. Barriers and opportunities for sanitation SMEs: A study of the wider market system in Ghana. Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor, 2017.

    This Topic Brief presents a study of the wider market barriers and opportunities facing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in sanitation in Ghana.

    Conducted by i-San, the study aimed to understand the impact of these factors on the ability of businesses to reach low-income urban...

  • FSSM TOT toolkit
    Training of trainers on Faecal Sludge and Septage Management In IFSM toolkit. CEPT University, 2017.

    Septage Management is a significant element of urban sanitation. With Swachh Bharat Mission, Government of India has set an impressive target of univeral access to improved sanitation.

    Citywide integrated Faecal Sludge Mangement (IFSM) planning involves assesment and planning accross the...

  • Guidebook_Maharashtra FSM
    Guidebook for Urban Local Bodies to Implement Septage Management Plan. Urban Development Department, Government of Maharashtra, 2017.

    In Maharashtra, only 32 cities are partially covered with sewer systems. Majority of household toilets are connected to onsite systems like septic tanks or pits. The new toilets constructed since the launch of Swachh Maharashtra Mission, Urban (SMMU) in 2015 by are being connected to septic...

  • Smart Sewerage
    Smart Sewerage: Guideline No. 2.4 (iii)., 2016.

    Guideline No. 2.4 (iii) provides for sanitation as a core element of a Smart City. The key features of a performance based management contract for a Smart Sewerage System are given.

    View the document at: ...

  • Sanitation Tool Compendium
    Dey, Shramana, Sonali Anusree Patro, and Sujaya Rathi. Sanitation Tool Compendium. Bengaluru, India: Centre for Study of Science, Technology and Policy (CSTEP), 2016.

    Sanitation, while a basic human right, is also a large and multifaceted sector that involves many different concepts and strategies. Often, projects related to sanitation are complex and require stakeholders to execute many different but crucial actions. Further, even existing projects need to...

  •  Warrangal operative guidelines for FSM 2016
    Septage Management (Capture to Disposal) - Regulations 2016., 2016.

    The operative guidelines on septage management covering collection, transportation, treatment and disposal are issued by the Municipal Commissioner to ensure effective compliance with guidelines and standards at national and state level and achieve effective septage management. The operative...

  • Septage Management Guidelines for Maharashtra
    Guidelines for Septage Management in Maharashtra In Swachh Maharashtra Mission (Urban). Urban Development Department, Government of Maharashtra, 2016.

    The objective of this guideline is to facilitate all ULBs in Maharashtra to prepare an integrated faecal sludge management plan and implement a full septage management service in their cities. This would cover aspects across the service chain of on-site sanitation including safe collection,...

  • An assessment of faecal sludge management (FSM) policies and programmes at the national and select states level in order to have
    An Assessment of Faecal Sludge Management Policies and Programmes at the National and Select State Levels. New Delhi: WaterAid, India, 2016.

    An assessment of faecal sludge management (FSM) policies and programmes at the national and select states level in order to have a country-wide perspective on FSM and guide the policy advocacy work on FSM within WaterAid India. The study was carried out by WaterAid India with support from its...

  • FAECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT
    Faecal Sludge Management. New Delhi: National Institute of Urban Affairs, 2016.

    Sludge is a mixture of solids and liquids, containing mostly excreta and water in combination with sand, grit, metals, trash and/or various chemical compounds.

    Faecal Sludge comes from onsite sanitation technologies, i.e. it has not been transported through a sewer. It can be raw or...

  • Rapid Assessment Tool for City Septage Budgeting

    The tool has been designed by MoUD to help cities in assessing the cost estimates for Faecal Sludge Mangement. Census data of 100 smart cities and 31 AMRUT Cities is built in to the tool. The Ministry aims to support 131 designated cities in India to implement citywide faecal sludge management....

  • Primer on FSSM
    Primer on Faecal Sludge and Septage Management. New Delhi, India: Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India, 2016.

    We know that on-site sanitation systems along with faecal waste/septage treatment plants have been successfully implemented in cities across Africa and the South East Asia. To bring about quick improvements in sanitation levels across urban areas in India and stop
    dangerous practices such...

  • FSSM handbook
    Making Cities Open Defecation Free: Systematic Approach in Maharastra. Urban Development Department, Government of Maharashtra, 2016.

    In Maharashtra, nearly one in three urban households do not have a toilet on premise. This was due to constrains related to space, finance, tenure, building permission, lack of awareness etc. Since the launchof Swachh Maharashtra Mission, Urban (SMMU) in 2015 by Government of Maharashtra, the...

  • FSM introduction
    Faecal Sludge Management: Planning, Financing, Implementation. New Delhi, India: National Institute for Urban Affairs, 2016.

    This is overview document to introduce Faecal Sludge Management in context of India.

  • Developing Business Models for Fecal Sludge Management in Maputo
    Hawkins, Peter, and Odete Muxímpua. Developing Business Models for Fecal Sludge Management in Maputo. Washington DC: The World Bank, 2015.

    Only 9% of households in Maputo are connected to a sewerage system, whilst 41% rely on pit latrines and 49% use septic tanks and pour-flush toilets. Although almost 90% of Maputo residents have access to a hygienic excreta disposal facility as defined by the World Health Organization/ The United...

  • Faecal Sludge Management: Systems Approach for Implementation and Operation
    Strande, Linda, Mariska Ronteltap, and Damir Brdjanovic. Faecal Sludge Management: Systems Approach for Implementation and Operation. London: IWA Publishing, 2014.

    Over a billion people in urban and peri-urban areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America are served by onsite sanitation technologies. Until now, the management of faecal sludge resulting from these onsite technologies has been grossly neglected. Financial resources are often lacking, and onsite...

  • From Toilets to Rivers: Experiences, New Opportunities and Innovative Solutions
    From Toilets to Rivers: Experiences, New Opportunities and Innovative Solutions. Metro Manila: Asian Development Bank, 2014.

    While issues of sanitation are often looked at in isolation, they are directly tied to issues of water security, health, food security, environmental sustainability, energy and climate change. The case studies illustrate not only the challenges of sanitation and wastewater management, but more...

  • Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies
    Tilley, Elizabeth, Lukas Ulrich, Christoph Lüthi, Philippe Reymond, and Christian Zurbrügg. Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised ed. Dübendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), 2014.

    The Compendium is a guidance document for engineers and planners in low- and middle-income countries, primarily intended to be used for communicative planning processes involving local communities. It is also intended for persons/experts who have detailed knowledge about conventional high-end...

  • Bio-Digesters: An Eco-Friendly Solution for Human Waste Management

    Human waste disposal in innocuous form is an ever growing problem leading to aesthetic nuisance, threat of organic pollution & several infectious diseases in epidemic proportions due to contamination of ground water and drinking water resources in highly populated and developing countries,...

  • FSM manual
    Koottatep, Thammarat, Paul Jacob, and Atitaya Panuvatvanich. Non-conventional sewerage services: When to choose this option, how to implement this solution. Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), 2014.

    Non-conventional sewerage options have been implemented across the world over the last few decades, not only using diverse technological options and management methods, but also in a wide range of contexts and on different scales. A large number of examples can now be found and this solution is...

  • Policy Paper on Septage Management in India
    Policy Paper on Septage Management in India. New Delhi: Centre for Science and Environment, 2011.

    CSE has developed a "Policy Paper on Septage Management in India" as deliverable of Centre of Excellence in the area of sustainable water management under the Ministry of Urban Development.

    This document on septage management aims to assist the Government of India towards preparation of...

  • wetlands for wastewater
    Gjinali, Dr. Enkelejda, Dr. Joachim Niklas, and Hendrik Smi. Wastewater treatment using constructed wetlands Tirana, Albania. Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA), 2011.

    The pilot plant, one of the first established in Albania, consists of a "Dortmund tank" (a settling tank with vertical flow) combined with another settling tank for pre-treatment, two vertical filter beds that are fed alternately by pump and one horizontal filter bed. Effluent is collected for...

  • SusanA compilation (24 cases)
    Compilation of 24 SuSanA Case Studies. Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA), 2009.

    The SuSanA publishes case studies of sustainable sanitation projects to demonstrate the wide range of possible systems for sustainable sanitation systems. The case study collection comprises project examples from developing and industrialised countries, high and low tech systems, urban and rural...

  • A Guide to Decisionmaking—Sanitation Technology Options for Urban India
    A Guide to Decisionmaking—Sanitation Technology Options for Urban India. New Delhi: Ministry of Urban Development, 2008.

    Poor sanitation is endemic in towns and cities across India and exacts a heavy toll on public health. In response, the Government of India has made increased funding available for the qualifying cities for sanitation infrastructure via the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission.

    ...

  • Eco home_Nepal
    Shrestha, Roshan Raj. "Eco Home for sustainable water management: A case study in Kathmandu, Nepal." In International Conference on Sustainable Sanitation: “Food and Water Security for Latin America” . Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, 2007.

    Shortage of drinking water and pollution of water bodies are the growing problem in urban centers of Nepal. Kathmandu, the capital of the nation, is severely affected by these problems where water is supplied only half of the actual demand and the major rivers are turning into open drains....