A wide range of interventions are required to improve the overall performance of city bus systems. This report identifies the key challenges faced by various bus operating agencies, and develops a roadmap for improving their performance. The report presents a detailed analysis of existing practices and challenges faced by operating agencies in 12 cities of varying population size, geographical location and type of the city bus system. Recommendations are proposed in six key intervention areas: i) strategic planning, ii) technology improvement, iii) operational processes, iv) bus transport infrastructure, v) institutional and contracting frameworks and vi) funding and implementation. Each recommendation under these intervention areas is accompanied by the timelines for adoption and implementation, the resource requirements and institutional roles and responsibilities.