To effectively respond to the needs of the urban poor and vulnerable, it is essential to have knowledge of the existing situation and the gaps in service delivery. Towards this end, the ‘Vulnerability Mapping Guidelines and Tools under NUHM’ is a much-needed document by which we can not only locate the physical presence of our target population, but also ‘map’ their needs, barriers, disease profile, social determinants, coping mechanisms and perceptions towards public services. The Guideline has been developed after several rounds of deliberations and discussions. The discussions highlighted that there have also been other schemes and programs in the past for the urban poor which have conducted similar assessments. It will be of course very valuable if States are able to utilize those assessments also to understand the status of health determinants.