Japan is rich in water resources with little experience of water shortages. Internationally, however, examples can be seen both of locations where lack of water is a physical phenomenon and where it is an economic
one, and it is predicted that water shortages will become more severe as populations rise and become more concentrated in the urban areas. Effective ways of supplying water to afflicted cities include production of water by seawater desalination and use of recycled water, and there is a need to manage the overall circulation of water around the city efficiently. To provide smart cities with water infrastructure systems, Hitachi is promoting its intelligent water system concept for integrating water treatment systems with information and control systems for the efficient utilization of recycled water.