Human powered traveling is flled with risks. It takes individual tenacity to walk and bicycle in many US city streets. The danger of being injured or fatally killed requires responsible government action and a new repoliticization of the transportation priorities. This paper examines the risks involved in exercising the right to walk and bicycle and the authority’s responsibility to account for the health, safety and well-being of all individuals. I argue that the implementation of broadly agreed upon non-motorized transportation planning is critical to the success of public policies. The paper reviews concepts, prior policies and trends, remaining dilemmas and planning implications of US non-motorized transportation planning.